only reflected greater conformity with the Burmese language

Author : chachanatwarlal
Publish Date : 2021-03-01 09:49:15


only reflected greater conformity with the Burmese language

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When British imperialists annexed what is today’s Myanmar during the 19th century, they called it Burma after the dominant Burman (Bamar) ethnic group, and administered it as a province of colonial India. This arrangement continued until 1937, when Burma was separated from British India and made a separate colony.
Even after the country became independent in 1948, it retained the same name, becoming the ‘Union of Burma’. In 1962, the military took over from a civilian government for the first time, and amended the official name in 1974 to the ‘Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma’.

Then in 1988, Myanmar’s armed forces again took power in the country, after suppressing a popular uprising that led to the deaths of thousands, and reversed the official name to ‘Union of Burma’. But a year later, the junta adopted a law that replaced Burma with Myanmar, making the country the ‘Union of Myanmar’.

A number of other places in the country also saw their names changed, including the then-capital city, which went from Rangoon to Yangon (since 2005, the capital is Naypyidaw, 370 km away to the north).
Why the name change was controversial

While changing the country’s name, the military said that it was looking for a way to leave behind a name inherited from the colonial past, and adopt a new one which could unify all of its 135 officially recognised ethnic groups, and not just the Burman people.
Critics decried the move, arguing that Myanmar and Burma mean the same thing in the Burmese language, only that the ‘Myanmar’ is a more formal way of saying ‘Burma’– a word used colloquially. The other name changes too, such as Rangoon to Yangon, only reflected greater conformity with the Burmese language, and nothing else. Also, the name changes took place only in English. Even in English, the adjective form remained (and continues to remain) Burmese, and not Myanmarese.

Pro-democracy sympathisers said that the name changes were illegitimate, as they were not decided by the will of the people. As a result, many governments around the world opposed to the junta decided to ignore the name changes, and continued to call the country Burma and its capital Rangoon.

So, when did ‘Myanmar’ start becoming acceptable?

In the 2010s, the military regime decided to transition the country towards democracy. Although the armed forces remained powerful, political opponents were freed and elections were allowed to be held.

In 2015, currently detained leader Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy party won a majority of seats in the national parliament, a feat it repeated in 2020.
As the Myanmar-vs-Burma debate became less polarising, most foreign governments and international organisations decided to recognise Myanmar as the official name. Many governments, such as Australia’s, decided to use both Burma and Myanmar, as means of signalling support for the democratic transition within the country and following diplomatic protocol at the same time.

Suu Kyi, who became the country’s civilian leader in 2016, also expressed support for using either Myanmar or Burma.

For strengthening the existing healthcare infrastructure, BMC has undertaken major structural repairs of 29 hospitals, 287 health posts and 28 maternity homes. For this purpose, it made a budgetary provision of Rs 822.72 crore in 2021-22. Also, renovation work of hospitals, halted by the pandemic, will begin soon. The BMC aims to complete the pending projects by 2022-23.

To enhance the capacity to tackle communicable diseases, BMC proposed upgradation of Kasturba hospital. It further proposed Rs 780.69 crore for the upgradation of existing hospital buildings and new buildings. A super-speciality hospital in Bhandup and a super-speciality wing at Babasaheb Ambedkar Hospital in Kandivali were also proposed.

Despite the low revenue income in 2020-21, BMC scaled up its capital expenditure compared to the last four years. Two of its major sources of income – property tax and development charges – have been hit badly.

In his speech, Chahal announced a target of Rs 7,000 crore revenue from property tax and Rs 2,000 crore from development plan (DP) fees and premiums for 2020-21. But until December 2020, BMC’s revenue income were a measly Rs 738 crore from property tax and Rs 708 crore from DP fees and premiums.

But Chahal expressed confidence that BMC would be able to meet the revenue targets by the year-end and the gap between the revenue income estimate and the collection will only be Rs 400 crore.

mumbai: Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) deputy municipal commissioner Ramesh Pawar mistakenly drank sanitiser while presenting the civic body's education budget on Wednesday.During the presentation, he picked up a bottle and took a sip. He then realised that the bottle contained hand sanitiser and spat it out immediately.

Explained: How Burma became Myanmar after a military coup 3 decades ago
For many decades, many governments around the world ignored the name changes, and continued to call the country Burma and its capital Rangoon.
The Myanmar military grabbed power in a coup on Monday (February 1) – the third time in the nation’s history since its independence from British rule in 1948.

After the last such takeover in 1988, the armed forces went on to make a decision that would remain controversial for decades: changing the country’s name.

How Burma became Myanmar

Not all countries followed suit, however. The US remains among the few countries to not recognise the current legal name. This was highlighted after the latest coup took place on Monday, when President Joe Biden said in a statement, “The United States removed sanctions on Burma over the past decade based on progress toward democracy. The reversal of that progress will necessitate an immediate review of our sanction laws.”

Explained: Who is Rihanna, the superstar who wants focus on farmers
Rihanna, the singer-businesswoman with a net worth of more than $600 million, is well known for her association with humanitarian, philanthropic, and cultural causes.
Barbadian pop sensation Rihanna on Tuesday became one of the first global personalities to back the protesting farmers in India, and was followed by climate activist Greta Thunberg, actor John Cusack, US Vice president Kamala Harris’s niece Meena Harris, and Lebanese-American model Mia Khalifa, among others. The 32-year-old singer-actor’s tweet to her 101 million-plus followers, “Why aren’t we talking about this?! #FarmersProtest” quoted a CNN report headlined ‘India cuts internet around New Delhi as protesting farmers clash with police’. The Ministry of External Affairs issued an unusual reaction to the criticism by “celebrities and others”, calling them “neither accurate nor responsible”.

‘Can’t mess with nature’: Eagle flies away with drone, video triggers hilarious reactions online
The clip, which was originally shared on Facebook, later went viral on several social media platforms. "Eagle plucks a drone out of the sky and flies off with it," wrote a user @buitengebieden while posting the clip on Twitter.

A video of an eagle flying off with a drone has left netizens amused after it went viral on social media.

The undated video features the drone filming a beach and moving towards the shore before being plucked by the bird, who flies away with it.

The clip, which was originally shared on Facebook, later went viral on several social media platforms. “Eagle plucks a drone out of the sky and flies off with it,” wrote a user @buitengebieden while posting the clip on Twitter.


Escorts, whose stock has rallied 152 per cent since its March low of Rs 527.10 on the BSE, posted an 83.4 per cent year-on-year (YoY) increase in its net profit at Rs 280.7 crore for the third quarter ended December 31, 2020, led by robust sales across business segments. M&M, on the other hand, has gained 232 per cent from its 52-week low hit in March. The S&P BSE Sensex and the BSE Auto indices have gained 94 per cent and 136 per cent, respectively since March lows, ACE Equity data show.

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